INTRODUCTION: In mechanical design, the selection and application of materials directly determine the use function and quality of mechanical design. Today’s resource shortage to a certain extent restricts the development of mechanical design and is not conducive to the sustainable development of society, therefore, the development of new mechanical design materials has become a top priority in mechanical design.
The importance of mechanical design material selection
With the acceleration of urbanization, the mechanization industry has become an important part of social and economic development with its increasing role in urban construction. With the development and growth of the mechanical industry, it has gained huge economic benefits and to a certain extent promoted the development of our national economy.
However, with the increased demand for mechanical engineering, the massive loss of mechanical raw materials has caused a large loss of resources, and even some raw material resources have been unable to meet the current needs of mechanical design and processing.
This shows that the development of new mechanical design materials, the choice of environmental protection and energy saving, economic and practical new materials have become the necessary situation of mechanical design materials. Relevant experts show that in the selection of mechanical materials, must pay attention to the reasonableness of the selection of materials, before the application, must be the resource composition of the material, the internal structure design of machinery and the function of machinery as the main criterion for evaluation. Must be integrated with the current status of resources, combined with the specific application value of machinery to choose the right mechanical design materials, especially not just the immediate needs, to focus on the main points of mechanical engineering parts and its sustainable development in the future.
In mechanical engineering design in the selection and application of design materials should pay attention to matters
1, to pay attention to the economy and applicability of the selected materials
The most important point for the selection and application of materials in mechanical design is that there is no applicability, economy. Mechanical design personnel in the selection of materials, the need for the entire mechanical design principles, materials, links and functions are understood, which will involve production processes, manufacturing processes, welding and assembly processes and other aspects, only the overall planning and design, in order to select the actual design needs of cost-effective and applicable mechanical design materials. In order to maximize the value of the application of materials, so that the material can meet the design needs, in the mechanical design will be the value of the role of the material itself to show no doubt.
For example, in the forging process requires materials to have better malleability, stamping, post-break cooling and cold upsetting; welding process requires high applicability and sensitivity of the material; in the mechanical casting process requires a good shrinkage, air absorption, deflection and fluidity of the material. The different characteristics of mechanical processing materials provide different material choices for the mechanical design process. Under the premise of ensuring that the process requirements are met, grasp the various characteristics of the materials required for the process and rationalize the selection of materials is the right direction for the development of mechanical engineering. After focusing on the applicability of the mechanical design materials, it is also necessary to reasonably consider the economics of the design materials according to the project budget. Both to achieve the quality requirements of the selected materials to meet the standard, but also to ensure that the affordable choice of material prices. And for recyclable mechanical materials, in the entire mechanical design should be recycled, reduce resource consumption, reduce the cost of mechanical design, improve the overall economic benefits.
2, pay attention to the selection of materials for energy conservation and environmental protection
The topic of energy conservation and environmental protection occupies a certain position in the sustainable development of society in this era, with the development of social and economic development, rapid progress in science and technology, the consumption and destruction of resources is intensifying, which directly affects the development of environmental issues. Nowadays, people’s awareness of economic and environmental protection has been gradually strengthened, and environmental protection has become the focus of social discussion. Environmental damage and resource consumption have become the key aspects of environmental issues, and the sustainable development strategy of society must strictly control the excessive consumption of production resources. Therefore, in the process of mechanization development in China, the mechanical design of energy saving and environmental protection is very important.
3, the selection of materials for sustainable development
In the selection of materials for mechanical design, and even the entire process of mechanical design, must follow the strategic principle of sustainable development. From the function of mechanical design, from the essential characteristics of the material, combined with the green concept of environmental protection and energy saving, according to the actual needs of the selection of materials, so that the mechanical design to achieve optimal.
The selection and application of materials in mechanical design
In mechanical design engineering, for the selection and application of materials, must meet the mechanical engineering design needs, but also consider the function of materials and resource supply reliability. The following analysis of the application of mechanical design material selection for the characteristics of the unloading material .
1, the selection of practical mechanical materials application
In the selection of mechanical design materials, the first thing that should be considered is the practical value and functional characteristics of the material. In the time of mechanical design, usually materials are based on specific process indicators need to be casting, machining, cutting and heat treatment. Processes are different, the need for materials are different, the choice of materials is very strict, and must be suitable for its design needs. Wear resistance and strength of the material is the mechanical parts must be considered before processing, at the same time, also take into account the appearance of the parts, the need to meet the needs of different parts characteristics, choose the correct scientific material for processing to meet the needs of mechanical processes.
2, the load type mechanical material selection application
Mechanical materials in the process of mechanical design and processing, there is a certain possibility of failure. In the process of mechanical parts for operational applications, there is also the possibility of failure, which can seriously affect the normal operation of machinery, resulting in unavoidable losses. These problems are usually caused by the existence of load differences in mechanical design materials. Therefore, in order to ensure the effective operation of mechanical design. In the selection of materials must be the material load capacity as the focus of consideration, from the specific design requirements, select the economical and applicable quality materials.
3, the application of low consumption mechanical material selection
China’s sustainable development strategy applied in all walks of life, for mechanical design, sustainable development must ensure the design of materials and applications of low consumption, non-polluting characteristics. In the mechanical design, the processing of materials also need to pay attention to low consumption and environmental protection methods and methods. In mechanical processing, heat treatment is currently the largest impact on the life of mechanical materials and performance damage processing process, and this processing process will also cause significant environmental pollution. So try to avoid heat treatment process, in the mechanical design can choose cold, hot-rolled state material performance play a better material. If you can not avoid heat treatment process, then choose the processing process is simple materials, so you can reduce consumption and reduce pollution.
4, the application of harmless mechanical materials selection
In the mechanical design and processing, many materials may be brought back to contain certain dangerous elements, such as Ni elements, such elements will cause serious environmental pollution, but also damage to human health, so we must strengthen the detection and supervision of the selected materials to prevent some toxic and harmful materials used in machinery and equipment.
5, the choice of recyclable mechanical materials applications
In the mechanical design, there are many parts are made of metal, metal as China’s common energy, which is less and less, the development of the mechanization industry and intensify the consumption of metal energy, seriously restricting the development of mechanization. In addition, due to the many types of steel, and too widely used in machinery, resulting in the difficulty of effective recycling. At the same time, the mixture of various elements, resulting in a large amount of waste of resources when carrying out recycling. It can be seen that, in ensuring the stable and sustainable development of the machinery industry at the same time, to improve the recycling rate of mechanical raw materials.
China’s social and economic development level continues to improve, science and technology is also progressing, in this help, China’s mechanization industry is also constantly making new developments and breakthroughs, but the development of mechanization construction has also caused a large number of mechanical raw materials consumption and inevitable waste. In this case, in order to reduce the waste of resources, must be scientific and reasonable selection and application of mechanical raw materials, in line with the strategic policy of sustainable development. Therefore, to have sufficient analysis of the specific needs of mechanical design understanding, and to understand the characteristics of the material, from the principle of economic applicability, green and sustainable safety to choose the use of new mechanical design materials, in order to promote the vigorous development of mechanization in China.